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English Language Learner KnowledgeBase for Administrators & Teachers

This KnowledgeBase archive includes content and external links that were accurate and relevant as of September 30, 2019.

The English Language Learner (ELL) KnowledgeBase for Administrators and Teachers is an online resource supporting both the administration, teaching and execution of programs for English learning students. It offers resources related to Office for Civil Rights (OCR) requirements and the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA).

Task 1: Acquiring a Second Language




The Five Stages of Second Language Acquisition

This September 19, 2018 article and infographic from Bilingual Kidspot explores the 5 stages of second language acquisition.

Practical Tips

Acquiring English As A Second Language

This American Speech-Language-Hearing Association website compares and contrasts First and Second language Acquisition, the Implications for Language for Teachers, and the anticipated need for bilingual students.


CCSE English Language Teaching

This June 2009 CCSE paper first looks at the similarities between the L1 (first language acquisition) and L2 (second language acquisition). Then, the differences are outlined. In the last part of the paper, the implications of these findings for foreign language teachers is discussed.


First- and Second-Language Acquisition in Early Childhood

This ERIC digest paper notes the importance of language acquisition for children's physical, social, and cognitive development, this paper discusses first- and second-language acquisition in children. After providing background on second-language acquisition, this paper discusses the controversy surrounding bilingual education programs. The paper then explores what is known about language learning, noting that in both first- and second-language acquisition, a stimulating and rich linguistic environment will support language development. The paper concludes with a discussion of factors that contribute to students' academic success, including using students' first language to provide academic instruction for as long as possible and using an active discovery approach to teaching and learning. Download PDF


Overview of Approaches to Second Language Acquisition – Power Point

This 2014 Slideserve Power Point presentation explores the idea that Language is a natural biological process Language Acquisition Device (LAD), that humans have the innate capacity for language Universal Grammar. Factors such as age, learning habits, diverse needs and contextual are also reviewed.  Tips for Teachers, Best Approach for ESL's and helpful references are also shared.

The contents of this website were developed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education and are intended for general reference purposes only. However, those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the U.S. Department of Education or the Center, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government. Some resources on this site require Adobe Acrobat Reader. This website archive includes content and external links that were accurate and relevant as of September 30, 2019.