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English Language Learner KnowledgeBase for Administrators & Teachers

This KnowledgeBase archive includes content and external links that were accurate and relevant as of September 30, 2019.

The English Language Learner (ELL) KnowledgeBase for Administrators and Teachers is an online resource supporting both the administration, teaching and execution of programs for English learning students. It offers resources related to Office for Civil Rights (OCR) requirements and the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA).

Task 2: Bilingualism / Biliteracy






6 Potential Brain Benefits of Bilingual Education

This 2016 NPR article is part of their ongoing series exploring how the U.S. can educate the nearly 5 million students who are learning English. One thing NPR Ed has learned is that people are fascinated by brain research. And yet it can be hard to point to places where our education system is really making use of the latest neuroscience findings.

Promoting and Maintaining Bilingualism and Biliteracy: Cognitive and Biliteracy Benefits & Strategies for Monolingual Teachers

This 2015 NPR Ed article states many school personnel pursue the goal of developing English language learners’ English-language and literacy skills efficiently and this is most often implemented to the exclusion of supporting, developing, and maintaining students’ heritage language skills.  In this article, NPR Ed presents research-based evidence in support of developing and maintaining bilingualism and biliteracy, and we submit that the empirical research support for the benefits of bilingualism and biliteracy should change language and literacy instruction. Strategies for teachers, especially teachers who do not speak the heritage language of their students, are provided and can be implemented to promote bilingual reading, writing, and language skill development.

The Cognitive Benefits of Bilingualism

This 2017 Leveraging Literacy paper explored the benefits and advantages of bilingualism.

Why Bilingual Students Have a Cognitive Advantage for Learning to Read

When it comes to simultaneous vs sequential bilingualism, both experience similar effects. While simultaneous bilinguals have these benefits longer, sequential bilinguals pick them up quickly while learning a second language. The cognitive benefits also transcend socioeconomic status or other cultural factors, suggesting that any level of bilingualism is profoundly positive.


The contents of this website were developed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education and are intended for general reference purposes only. However, those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the U.S. Department of Education or the Center, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government. Some resources on this site require Adobe Acrobat Reader. This website archive includes content and external links that were accurate and relevant as of September 30, 2019.