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Response to Intervention KnowledgeBase

This KnowledgeBase archive includes content and external links that were accurate and relevant as of September 30, 2019.

The Response to Intervention KnowledgeBase is an online resource supporting educators in understanding and implementing the response to intervention (RTI) model. The National Implementation Research Network (NIRN) has identified four stages in the implementation of evidence-based strategies such as RTI. The first stage is Exploration, and it involves consideration of the essential components of RTI models and the district or school's readiness to implement an RTI model with fidelity. During the second stage, Installation, a district or school selects an RTI model and works actively to put in place all of the supports necessary for implementing the essential components. These supports can include staff member training, policies, implementation guides, forms, assessments, instructional programs, and software. The third stage is Initial Implementation, and it involves implementing the essential components. Initial Implementation can involve just a few components or teachers, and then implementation expands over time. When the majority of teachers are implementing all components of RTI with fidelity, the district or school is in the fourth stage, called Full Implementation. This KnowledgeBase is geared primarily toward those in the Exploration and Installation stages, with some resources for those in the Initial Implementation stage.

Task 1: Design and Deliver Secondary Prevention/Intervention

Guideline: Secondary intervention provides strategic, supplemental instruction to students who have not responded sufficiently to primary prevention. Targeted instruction is provided to struggling or at-risk students in a small group setting by a highly-qualified teacher or certified specialist; ongoing progress monitoring data is collected to determine student growth and make targeted instructional decisions. The following resources provide guidance in the design and delivery of interventions appropriate for the secondary level of a response to intervention (RTI) framework.



Academic Intervention Chart

This link is to the academic intervention chart compiled by the Center on Response to Intervention. 


Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention for Elementary and Middle Schools

This Institute of Education Sciences practice guide provides eight recommendations designed to help teachers, principals, and administrators use RTI for the early detection, prevention, and support of students struggling with mathematics.

Assisting Students Struggling with Reading: Response to Intervention and Multi-Tier Intervention in the Primary Grades

This Institute of Education Sciences practice guide helps educators identify struggling readers and implement evidence-based strategies to increase academic achievement. It details screening students for reading problems, designing a multi-tier intervention program, adjusting instruction to help struggling readers, and monitoring student progress.

Interventions for Adolescent Struggling Readers: A Meta-Analysis with Implications for Practice

This Center on Instruction document provides educators research-based guidance for intervening with struggling adolescent readers.

Mathematics Intervention at the Secondary Prevention Level of a Multi-Tier Prevention System

This RTI Action Network article authored by Vanderbilt University's Lynn Fuchs, Ph.D., reviews six instructional principles associated with Tier 2 mathematics interventions.

Multi-Tier Interventions and Response to Interventions for Students Struggling in Mathematics

This Center on Instruction document provides a summary of nine studies with information about evidence-based practices for Tier 2 interventions and how to use RTI in mathematics.

Principles of Effective Instruction and Intervention

This link is to a list of research articles on various aspects of academic interventions compiled by the Florida Center for Reading Research.

RTI and Math Instruction

This RTI Action Network article addresses RTI implementation in mathematics. It presents three considerations required for decision-making in RTI: "Who needs intervention?", "What type of intervention is needed?", and "Is the intervention working?" It then discusses the importance of implementation fidelity and system change to ensure desired and sustainable outcomes for mathematical learning.


Interventions in an RTI Model

This Center on Response to intervention webinar presented by Erica Lembke, Ph.D., focuses on fidelity of implementation of intervention. Dr. Lembke includes handouts that contain examples of fidelity support and monitoring tools for data-based decision making and intervention implementation. The webinar runs 57 minutes with a link to the handouts and a PDF version of the presentation.