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Response to Intervention KnowledgeBase

This KnowledgeBase archive includes content and external links that were accurate and relevant as of September 30, 2019.

The Response to Intervention KnowledgeBase is an online resource supporting educators in understanding and implementing the response to intervention (RTI) model. The National Implementation Research Network (NIRN) has identified four stages in the implementation of evidence-based strategies such as RTI. The first stage is Exploration, and it involves consideration of the essential components of RTI models and the district or school's readiness to implement an RTI model with fidelity. During the second stage, Installation, a district or school selects an RTI model and works actively to put in place all of the supports necessary for implementing the essential components. These supports can include staff member training, policies, implementation guides, forms, assessments, instructional programs, and software. The third stage is Initial Implementation, and it involves implementing the essential components. Initial Implementation can involve just a few components or teachers, and then implementation expands over time. When the majority of teachers are implementing all components of RTI with fidelity, the district or school is in the fourth stage, called Full Implementation. This KnowledgeBase is geared primarily toward those in the Exploration and Installation stages, with some resources for those in the Initial Implementation stage.

Task 1: Design and Deliver Tertiary Prevention/Intervention

Guideline: Tertiary prevention provides research-based, intensive intervention to students with the most severe learning difficulties by targeting specific, individual student needs. Instruction may be intensified by increasing the student's time in the intervention (i.e., increasing the intervention's duration, length, and frequency), reducing the intervention group size, and intensifying the instructional delivery, but it may also be made more intense by carefully analyzing a student's learning difficulties through various sources of data and identifying specific instructional practices that are likely to reduce these difficulties. The resources below will provide guidance in the design and delivery of intensive interventions appropriate for tertiary intervention.



Academic Intervention Chart

This link is to the academic intervention chart compiled by the Center on Response to Intervention. 


Considering Tier 3 Within a Response to Intervention Model

This RTI Action Network article authored by the University of British Columbia's Ruth Ervin, Ph.D., describes a process to address decision making at Tier 3. It offers a series of questions to consider when identifying students for Tier 3 interventions.

Extensive Reading Interventions in Grade K-3: From Research to Practice

This Center on Instruction report summarizes 12 peer-reviewed, high-quality research studies between 1995 and 2005 and synthesizes their findings on the effects of extensive reading interventions for struggling K-3 readers.

Principles of Effective Instruction and Intervention

This link is to a list of research articles on various aspects of academic interventions compiled by the Florida Center for Reading Research.


RTI (Part 5): A Closer Look at Tier 3

This link to one of Vanderbilt University's IRIS Center learning modules describes which students will receive Tier 3 intervention (i.e., special education services), components of Tier 3 reading interventions, and students' response to this individualized intervention. The module also explores parent involvement and issues related to English language learners.