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Response to Intervention KnowledgeBase

This KnowledgeBase archive includes content and external links that were accurate and relevant as of September 30, 2019.

The Response to Intervention KnowledgeBase is an online resource supporting educators in understanding and implementing the response to intervention (RTI) model. The National Implementation Research Network (NIRN) has identified four stages in the implementation of evidence-based strategies such as RTI. The first stage is Exploration, and it involves consideration of the essential components of RTI models and the district or school's readiness to implement an RTI model with fidelity. During the second stage, Installation, a district or school selects an RTI model and works actively to put in place all of the supports necessary for implementing the essential components. These supports can include staff member training, policies, implementation guides, forms, assessments, instructional programs, and software. The third stage is Initial Implementation, and it involves implementing the essential components. Initial Implementation can involve just a few components or teachers, and then implementation expands over time. When the majority of teachers are implementing all components of RTI with fidelity, the district or school is in the fourth stage, called Full Implementation. This KnowledgeBase is geared primarily toward those in the Exploration and Installation stages, with some resources for those in the Initial Implementation stage.

Sub-task 1: Measurement Issues with Discrepancy Model



Discrepancy Models in the Identification of Learning Disability

This link is to a paper on discrepancy models presented at the 2001 Learning Disabilities Summit, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP). Authored by Kenneth A. Kavale, formerly of the University of Iowa, the "paper reviews issues surrounding the use of discrepancy in identifying learning disability."

Using Assessment Results to Plan Instruction

Developed with funding from The Meadows Foundation and the Texas Education Agency, Effective Instruction for Middle School Students with Reading Difficulties: The Reading Teacher's Sourcebook offers middle school reading teachers an overview of research-based instructional approaches for teaching struggling readers. Chapter Three: Using Assessment Results to Plan Instruction offers guidance for teachers on how to adjust their instruction to respond to the needs identified by the assessment outcomes.

What Is the IQ-Achievement Discrepancy Model?

This IRIS Center prepared Dialogue Guide summarizes the IQ Achievement Discrepancy Model and issues associated with it.


Comparison of RTI and the Discrepancy Model

In this RTI Action Network video, principal Jim Crawford, a former school psychologist and assistant principal of Boulevard Elementary in Gloversville, New York, discusses why the tiered RTI framework better enables educators to help struggling students.

Learning Module: RTI (Part I) An Overview

This link is to a learning module created by the IRIS Center at Vanderbilt University. As noted at its website, "This module outlines the differences between the IQ-achievement discrepancy model and the Response-to-Intervention (RTI) approach. It also offers a brief overview of each tier in the RTI model and explains its benefits."

Using CBM to Determine Response to Intervention

This link to a Center on Response to Intervention learning module explains the difference between RTI and traditional assessment for learning disabilities. While this module can be used alone, it is a part of a series of modules teaching how to use Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) data in an RTI framework.