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Response to Intervention KnowledgeBase

This KnowledgeBase archive includes content and external links that were accurate and relevant as of September 30, 2019.

The Response to Intervention KnowledgeBase is an online resource supporting educators in understanding and implementing the response to intervention (RTI) model. The National Implementation Research Network (NIRN) has identified four stages in the implementation of evidence-based strategies such as RTI. The first stage is Exploration, and it involves consideration of the essential components of RTI models and the district or school's readiness to implement an RTI model with fidelity. During the second stage, Installation, a district or school selects an RTI model and works actively to put in place all of the supports necessary for implementing the essential components. These supports can include staff member training, policies, implementation guides, forms, assessments, instructional programs, and software. The third stage is Initial Implementation, and it involves implementing the essential components. Initial Implementation can involve just a few components or teachers, and then implementation expands over time. When the majority of teachers are implementing all components of RTI with fidelity, the district or school is in the fourth stage, called Full Implementation. This KnowledgeBase is geared primarily toward those in the Exploration and Installation stages, with some resources for those in the Initial Implementation stage.

Task 1: Review Legal and Equity Issues

Guideline:  District and school staff members should be familiar with the legal and equity issues associated with Response to Intervention (RTI). Reviewing the provided resources may provide such an understanding.



Questions and Answers On Response to Intervention (RTI) and Early Intervening Services (EIS)

This link is to questions and answers (Q & A) released by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services as follow up to the October 2006 final regulations for the reauthorized Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This Q & A addresses RTI and early intervening services.



Midwest and Plains Equity Assistance Center

This link to the Midwest and Plains Equity Assistance Center website provides information regarding race, gender, and national origin equity to educators including podcasts, webinars, and resources that can be downloaded.

National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NCCRESt) - website no longer exists

This link is to the former website of NCCRESt now supported by the Equity Alliance at Arizona State University.

Preventing Disproportionate Representation: Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Pre-referral Interventions - website no longer exists

This 2006 National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems practitioner brief discusses the issues associated with culturally and linguistically responsive interventions for culturally and linguistically diverse students.

RTI and Disproportionate Representation: An Annotated Bibliography

This link to the Center on Response to Intervention website provides an annotated bibliography of key articles for understanding disproportionate representation. As noted at the website, "the bibliography is categorized into three sections: Practitioner-oriented, Practitioners Who Want to Learn More, and Research-oriented. The Practitioner-oriented category is mainly composed of articles that are simple and practical. The category entitled, Practitioners Who Want to Learn More, is for those who want more detailed information about disproportionality."

Response to Intervention: An Equity Perspective

This link to an issues paper prepared by the ten Regional Title IV Equity Assistance Centers discusses the equity issues associated with RTI. The paper identifies eleven recommendations to assure successful implementation of RTI.

Revitalizing Special Education for Children and Their Families

This 2002 U.S. Department of Education document summarizes the findings of the President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education. As noted in the transmittal letter, "the report outlines findings and recommendations for improving the educational performance of children with disabilities."

Truth in Labeling: Disproportionality in Special Education

This 2007 report from the National Education Association and the National Association of School Psychologists provides information on disproportionality in special education. As noted in the report's introduction, it addresses "what it is, issues that contribute to it, implications for students, schools, and communities, and practices that can create positive change, including response to intervention models, early intervening services and positive behavior supports."