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According to Reading Rocketsat age 5, most kindergartners become able to:

  • Sound like they are reading when pretending to read
  • Enjoy being read to and retell simple stories
  • Use descriptive language to explain or to ask questions
  • Recognize letters and letter-sound matches
  • Show familiarity with rhyming and beginning sounds
  • Understand that print is read left-to-right and top-to-bottom
  • Begin to match spoken words with written ones
  • Begin to write letters of the alphabet and some words they use and hear often
  • Begin to write stories with some readable parts

Get more resources at Reading Rockets: Literacy Milestones Age 5


According to the Oklahoma State Department of Education, by the end of the school year, your child may be able to:

  • Count numbers in order to 100 by 1s and 10s
  • Separate a small group of objects into at least two equal sets
  • Identify pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters
  • Recognize, duplicate, and extend patterns
  • Arrange up to 6 objects according to lengths
  • Use smaller shapes to form a larger shape

Download Oklahoma Department of Education Family Guide to Kindergarten Math

Dr. Blevins-Knabe received her Ph.D. from the University of Texas at Austin. Her training is in developmental psychology and her research interests are in the mathematical development of young children. In addition to work on transitivity, seriation, addition, and subtraction, she has examined the relationship between the home environment and young children’s mathematical development. Parental values, attitudes, and behaviors all influence how well children perform on assessments of mathematics. Watch video here:

Want to help children to be confident in their math abilities? Learn about the steps children typically take to learn math by exploring LTs. Each topic (or trajectory) is broken down into the levels, or steps, children take on their path to being strong mathematicians.

How Educators and Caregivers Can Create Supportive Conditions for Success in PreK-12 Mathematics. Read More


Additional Numeracy Activities

The Ontario Ministry of Education has put together a wonderful resource for math activities that are appropriate for pre-kindergarten and kindergarten, as well as older children.

Download the Parent Guide