Early Language & Literacy KnowledgeBase
This KnowledgeBase archive includes content and external links that were accurate and relevant as of September 30, 2019.
The Early Language and Literacy KnowledgeBase is an online resource supporting language and literacy development in early learners from birth through age eight. Its focus is to support parents and caregivers in helping early learners with their language and literacy development, and teachers in enhancing their instruction for early learners from pre-Kindergarten through Grade 3.
Element 1: The Developing Early Learner
Purpose: Understanding the early learner's overall development lays the foundation for effective early language and literacy development. As early learners develop their language and literacy skills, cognitive abilities, emotional and social maturity, and physical capabilities, it is important to be aware these domains are all interconnected. This interconnectedness is a critical piece in the support of literacy and language development. Possessing such awareness may be helpful to teachers of early learners to enhance their teaching methods. Element 1 provides resources about the development of early learners and the role of family, caregivers, and first teachers with language and literacy development from birth through age eight.
Activity 1: Understand the Continuum of Child Development of the Early Learner
- Task 1: Understand Language and Literacy Development
- Task 2: Understand the Cognitive Development of the Early Learner
- Task 3: Understand the Emotional and Social Development of the Early Learner
- Task 4: Understand the Physical Development of the Early Learner
Activity 2: Understand the Role of Literacy in the Family
Element 2: Developing an Early Language and Literacy Learning Profile
Purpose: Understanding the status of early language and literacy in the early childhood care and educational environment at the community level is necessary to improve language and literacy development among early learners. Gathering information about the community helps members, including families, schools, and early childhood educators and caregivers, to understand the local landscape of early language and literacy.
Gathering information about the community is an important part of understanding the early childhood educational environment.
Activity 1: Build a Community Literacy Profile
Activity 2: Build an Early Child Care and School Literacy Profile
Element 3: The Foundation for Learning to Read and Write
Purpose: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) defines early literacy as "what children know about reading and writing before they actually learn to read and write." This Element explores the foundation for learning to read and write, focusing on language development and emergent literacy skills.
Activity 1: Understand Language Development
- Task 1: Developmental Milestones in Language
- Task 2: Receptive Language
- Task 3: Expressive Language
- Task 4: Building Oral Language Skills
- Task 5: Building Oral Language Skills With English Language Learners
Activity 2: Understand Emergent Literacy Milestones, Terminology, and Stages
- Task 1: Developmental Milestones in Literacy
- Task 2: Emergent Literacy Terminology
- Task 3: Stages of Reading Development
- Task 4: Stages of Writing Development
Activity 3: Intentional Instruction to Enhance Language and Emergent Literacy Development
- Task 1: Intentional Instruction and Developmentally Appropriate Practice
- Task 2: Intentional Instruction to Enhance Language Development
- Task 3: Intentional Instruction - Concepts of Print
- Task 4: Intentional Instruction - Read Alouds
- Task 5: Intentional Instruction - Alphabetic Principle
Element 4: Becoming a Reader and Writer
Purpose: This Element explores learning to read and write, focusing on the transitions from pre-school to Kindergarten and Kindergarten to first grade and the importance of a child-centered curriculum. Additionally, the Element delineates the research-based components of learning to read and write.
Activity 1: Transitions
- Task 1: The Transition from Pre-school to Kindergarten
- Task 2: The Transition from Kindergarten to First Grade
Activity 2: The Learning Environment
- Task 1: Addressing the Learning Needs of the Whole Child
- Task 2: A Literacy-Rich Learning Environment
Activity 3: A Child-Centered Curriculum
- Task 1: Early Childhood Curriculum
- Task 2: Early Childhood Assessment
- Task 3: Early Childhood Instruction
Activity 4: Reading Instruction
- Task 1: Understanding the National Early Literacy Panel's Report - The Five Precursors for Learning to Read
- Task 2: Understanding the National Reading Panel's Report - The Five Components of Learning to Read
- Task 3: Intentional Instruction of the Five Components of Learning to Read
Activity 5: Writing Instruction
- Task 1: Intentional Instruction of Writing Skills
- Task 2: The Writing Process
Activity 6: Creative Expression
- Task 1: Defining Creative Expression and Active Engagement
- Task 2: The Connection Between Creative Expression/Active Engagement and Learning to Read
- Task 3: Learning Literacy Skills Through Creative Expression
Activity 7: Technology, Reading, and Writing
- Task 1: Using Technology to Enhance Language Development
- Task 2: Using Technology to Teach Reading and Writing
Activity 8: Teaching All Children to Read and Write
Element 5: Standards for Early Childhood Teaching and Learning
Purpose: Standards for early learning include those for educators of early learners, state-level early learning guidelines or standards, and applicable national standards. Educators of early learners need to be aware of the standards impacting licensure and instruction. This Element provides information about applicable standards impacting educators of early learners and their students.
Activity 1: Be Aware of Standards for Early Childhood Educators
Activity 2: Be Aware of Early Childhood Learning Standards
Activity 3: Align Curriculum and Instruction to Standards
Element 6: Building Support for Early Learning Programs
Purpose: Building support for language and literacy development of early learners involves the participation of parents and caregivers, the business community, local community groups, and educational and state governmental leaders. To promote and enhance early learner language and development, educators need to be aware of the role each group plays and how to communicate with them. This Element provides resources to help educators of early learners gain such awareness.
Activity 1: Develop Parent, Caregivers, and Community Support
- Task 1: Communicate with and Involve Parents and Caregivers
- Task 2: Work with Local Cultural Groups and Community Organizations
Activity 2: Interact with Advocates and Policy Makers
Element 7: Using Data to Improve Early Learning Outcomes
Purpose: Formative and summative assessments and observations provide the basis for planning instruction, making adjustments, and refining future assessments. Assessment results show educators of early learners where changes need to be made in instructional approaches for groups of students or individual students. The assessment outcomes also show parents of early learners how their child is progressing. This Element explores how to use data to improve learning outcomes for early learners.
Activity 1: Use Multidimensional Learning Data
- Task 1: Gather Observational Data
- Task 2: Collecting Formative and Summative Assessment Data
- Task 3: Using Data to Promote Learning
Activity 2: Use Data to Improve Instruction and Increase Learning
Activity 3: Inform and Collect Feedback from Constituencies
The contents of this website were developed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education and are intended for general reference purposes only. However, those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the U.S. Department of Education or the Center, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government. Some resources on this site require Adobe Acrobat Reader. This website archive includes content and external links that were accurate and relevant as of September 30, 2019.