Response to Intervention KnowledgeBase
This KnowledgeBase archive includes content and external links that were accurate and relevant as of September 30, 2019.
The Response to Intervention KnowledgeBase is an online resource supporting educators in understanding and implementing the response to intervention (RTI) model. The National Implementation Research Network (NIRN) has identified four stages in the implementation of evidence-based strategies such as RTI. The first stage is Exploration, and it involves consideration of the essential components of RTI models and the district or school's readiness to implement an RTI model with fidelity. During the second stage, Installation, a district or school selects an RTI model and works actively to put in place all of the supports necessary for implementing the essential components. These supports can include staff member training, policies, implementation guides, forms, assessments, instructional programs, and software. The third stage is Initial Implementation, and it involves implementing the essential components. Initial Implementation can involve just a few components or teachers, and then implementation expands over time. When the majority of teachers are implementing all components of RTI with fidelity, the district or school is in the fourth stage, called Full Implementation. This KnowledgeBase is geared primarily toward those in the Exploration and Installation stages, with some resources for those in the Initial Implementation stage.
Task 1: Be Aware of the History of RTI
Guideline: Possessing a historical perspective of Response to Intervention (RTI) lays the foundation for learning about how, why, and when this multi-level prevention model came about and its effectiveness in improving student achievement. This task provides resources with information on the history of RTI.
This pocket guide explains how leaders can use a research-based framework for response to intervention (RTI) to improve learning for all students. The majority of states have some form of RTI initiative in place already. This guide can help states leverage existing initiatives to support the statewide school improvement efforts spelled out in their ESEA flexibility plans. Using a RTI Framework to Improve Student Learning is designed to help state and local policymakers and practitioners implement ESEA flexibility plans. The Pocket Guide includes:
- A description of the essential components of RTI;
- Requirements for Principle 2 in the application for building state, district, and school capacity to improve learning in all schools—particularly low-performing schools and those with the largest achievement gaps;
- Discussion of how applications of a research-based RTI framework address Principle 2 in approved plans; and
- Considerations (based on rigorous research) for the implementation of RTI frameworks to address the proposed reforms.
The National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) in partnership with the Council of Administrators of Special Education (CASE) at the Council for Exceptional Children produced this 2006 white paper that provides an overview of RTI.
This 2002 U.S. Department of Education document summarizes the findings of the President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education. As noted in the transmittal letter, "the report outlines findings and recommendations for improving the educational performance of children with disabilities."
This link to the RTI Action Network website provides an article reviewing the historical context of RTI authored by Dr. David Prasse of Loyola University (Illinois).
The contents of this website were developed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education and are intended for general reference purposes only. However, those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the U.S. Department of Education or the Center, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government. Some resources on this site require Adobe Acrobat Reader. This website archive includes content and external links that were accurate and relevant as of September 30, 2019.