Response to Intervention KnowledgeBase
This KnowledgeBase archive includes content and external links that were accurate and relevant as of September 30, 2019.
The Response to Intervention KnowledgeBase is an online resource supporting educators in understanding and implementing the response to intervention (RTI) model. The National Implementation Research Network (NIRN) has identified four stages in the implementation of evidence-based strategies such as RTI. The first stage is Exploration, and it involves consideration of the essential components of RTI models and the district or school's readiness to implement an RTI model with fidelity. During the second stage, Installation, a district or school selects an RTI model and works actively to put in place all of the supports necessary for implementing the essential components. These supports can include staff member training, policies, implementation guides, forms, assessments, instructional programs, and software. The third stage is Initial Implementation, and it involves implementing the essential components. Initial Implementation can involve just a few components or teachers, and then implementation expands over time. When the majority of teachers are implementing all components of RTI with fidelity, the district or school is in the fourth stage, called Full Implementation. This KnowledgeBase is geared primarily toward those in the Exploration and Installation stages, with some resources for those in the Initial Implementation stage.
Task 1: Review Legal and Equity Issues
Guideline: District and school staff members should be familiar with the legal and equity issues associated with Response to Intervention (RTI). Reviewing the provided resources may provide such an understanding.
This link is to questions and answers (Q & A) released by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services as follow up to the October 2006 final regulations for the reauthorized Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This Q & A addresses RTI and early intervening services.
This link to the IDEA website provides the federal regulations related to Assistance To States For The Education Of Children With Disabilities under IDEA.
Authored by the National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems, this document offers "guidance for practitioners on the federal laws guaranteeing a free and appropriate public education and protecting students with disabilities from discrimination."
This link is to the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs memorandum explaining how an RTI process cannot be used to delay or deny an evaluation for eligibility under IDEA.
This link to the Midwest and Plains Equity Assistance Center website provides information regarding race, gender, and national origin equity to educators including podcasts, webinars, and resources that can be downloaded.
National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NCCRESt) - website no longer exists
This link is to the former website of NCCRESt now supported by the Equity Alliance at Arizona State University.
This 2006 National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems practitioner brief discusses the issues associated with culturally and linguistically responsive interventions for culturally and linguistically diverse students.
This link to the Center on Response to Intervention website provides an annotated bibliography of key articles for understanding disproportionate representation. As noted at the website, "the bibliography is categorized into three sections: Practitioner-oriented, Practitioners Who Want to Learn More, and Research-oriented. The Practitioner-oriented category is mainly composed of articles that are simple and practical. The category entitled, Practitioners Who Want to Learn More, is for those who want more detailed information about disproportionality."
This link to an issues paper prepared by the ten Regional Title IV Equity Assistance Centers discusses the equity issues associated with RTI. The paper identifies eleven recommendations to assure successful implementation of RTI.
This 2002 U.S. Department of Education document summarizes the findings of the President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education. As noted in the transmittal letter, "the report outlines findings and recommendations for improving the educational performance of children with disabilities."
This 2007 report from the National Education Association and the National Association of School Psychologists provides information on disproportionality in special education. As noted in the report's introduction, it addresses "what it is, issues that contribute to it, implications for students, schools, and communities, and practices that can create positive change, including response to intervention models, early intervening services and positive behavior supports."
The contents of this website were developed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education and are intended for general reference purposes only. However, those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the U.S. Department of Education or the Center, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government. Some resources on this site require Adobe Acrobat Reader. This website archive includes content and external links that were accurate and relevant as of September 30, 2019.